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1:1334/36 







BIENNIAL REPORT 

OF THE 

State Industrial Farm Colony 
For Women 

KINSTON, N. C. 




FOR THE TWO YEARS ENDED 
JUNE 30, 1936. 



BIENNIAL REPORT 

OF THE 

State Industrial Farm Colony 
For Women 

KINSTON, N. C. 




FOR THE TWO YEARS ENDED 
JUNE 30, 1936. 



Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 



PERSONNEL 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

(Terms expire June 4, 1939) 

Matt. H. Allen, Chairman Kinston 

Mrs. G. V. Cowper, Secretary-Treasurer Kinston 

Miss Gertrude Weil Goldsboro 

Mrs. Frances D. Winston _. Windsor 

Ed. W. Summersill Jacksonville 



VISITING STAFF 

Thos. Leslie Lee, M.D., F.A.G.S. Medical Director 

Geo. W. Price, D.D.S. Dentist 

Edith Wladkowski Psychologist 

Hazel Wertman Psychologist 

Dorothy Gray Psychologist 



RESIDENT EXECUTIVE STAFF 

Elsa Ernst Superintendent 

Helen Rollwage Budget Officer and Deputy 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 3 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To His Excellency, The Honorable J. C. B. Ehringhaus, 
Governor of North Carolina, and to The General 
Assembly. 

Sirs: 

We have the honor to transmit herewith the Biennial Report 
of the State Industrial Farm Colony for Women for the two 
years ended June 30, 1936. 

On behalf of the Board we wish to commend to your especial 
consideration three outstanding needs of this institution: 

A progressive building program, which will work towards more 
adequate care for women now housed in jails and who need 
instead the training afforded by the State Farm Colony. 

Building alterations and equipment to set up a simple operating 
theatre and infirmary by means of which avoidable physical 
handicaps may be overcome and needed surgical work done. 

An appropriation for adult education in literacy, home-making, 
and industry. 

These are urgent needs for one of the most unfortunate 
classes of women in our state, as is set forth clearly and in de- 
tail in the report of the Superintendent; and the Board desires 
to add its appeal for the legislation to make it possible to meet 
these needs. 

Some difficulty has been experienced during the past year 
through receiving at the Colony types of cases properly belong- 
ing to other institutions, but it is hoped that with the increasing 
understanding of the kind of work done at this institution this 
difficulty may be eliminated. It is also hoped that the Legis- 
lature will provide for establishment of a State Classification 
Committee to control all admissions to State institutions, in 
accordance with the recommendations of the North Carolina 
Commission for the Study of the Care of the Insane and Mental 
Defectives. This we feel will be a big help to ours as well as 
to the other institutions. 

In reviewing the work which has been done we believe you 
will appreciate, as we do, the forward strides which have been 



4 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

made in developing the Colony program in line with the most 
modern ideas, and will wish to aid in its progress. This ad- 
vancement has been made possible through the vision, and the 
wise and continuous efforts of its superintendent, the loyalty of 
the staff, and the intelligent interest and cooperation of the 
members of the Board of Directors. The Directors and the staff, 
working in unison, have, we believe, done much to establish a 
worth-while plan for the rehabilitation of the unfortunate 
women misdemeanants in this state, a work which can continue 
and grow only through the legislative action which we hereby 
recommend. 

The generous increase in the Colony appropriations granted 
by the previous Legislature leads us to believe that both the 
Legislature and the public appreciate and value the work of the 
Colony. 

In conclusion, we desire to express our deep appreciation of 
Your Excellency's continued and sympathetic support of the 
work of the institution. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Matt. H. Allen, Chairman. 

Mrs. G. V. Cowper, Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Board of Directors. 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 5 

REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT 

To The Honorable Board of Directors of The 
State Industrial Farm Colony for Women: 

According to the monthly census bulletin of the State Board 
of Charities and Public Welfare, between two hundred and three 
hundred white women are committed every month to the county 
jails of North Carolina. The end of each month finds around 
fifty of these women still in jail serving sentences, and a some- 
what smaller number — between twenty and thirty — serving 
sentences in the county prisons and workhouses, a total of ap- 
proximately eighty serving jail and workhouse sentences every 
month. A considerable number of these women are capable of 
becoming happy, well-adjusted human beings and assets to their 
communities. 

Instead, we have a continually moving, continually added-to 
procession of unfortunate, "Forgotten Women" — daughters, 
mothers and grandmothers — in and out of the jails, and in and 
out again, — back to dirty, desolate or unhappy homes, back to 
bawdy houses, to drunkenness, soliciting, immorality, running 
the streets or infesting tourist camps, — the same old troubles 
arising and continuing indefinitely, and new and younger women 
continually recruited and joining these ranks of "forgotten 
women." It is obvious that NO constructive, practical rehabili- 
tation work can be done, nor can we expect it to be done, tuith 
women in jails. In the jail environment, the worst, not the best, 
in a woman is almost inevitably brought out. 

These are the conditions that the State Industrial Farm 
Colony for Women, created by the Legislature of 1929, has been 
battling against, and helping to alleviate as far as its small 
capacity and limited facilities will allow ever since its opening 
in April, 1929. In the ensuing years much has been accom- 
plished with the women, (between four hundred and five hun- 
dred of them, representing all counties of the state, from Chero- 
kee to Pasquotank, from New Hanover to Ashe), who have 
received training at the Colony. How one wishes it might have 
been possible to have had here every woman in the state who 
needed to come and who could have profited by the Colony 
training. 



6 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

Fifty per cent of the women at the Colony are mothers, 
representing generally from one hundred to one hundred and 
twenty children of school age, and below. Five per cent of our 
women are also grandmothers. 

It is good to know that the large majority of those who have 
been under training at the Colony are now out in the com- 
munity, not only accepting responsibility and making good 
themselves, but in many cases being active forces for good in- 
stead of for evil in their communities. In addition to character 
training, the practical training received at the Colony in house- 
keeping, health work, cooking, canning, sewing, mending and 
laundry work has enabled many of our women to obtain jobs 
after leaving. The Colony outdoor work and farm program for 
the women in addition to its practical purpose of providing food 
for the Colony and feed for the stock, and keeping the grounds 
in order, is an important stabilizing factor in their training and 
development, and also especially valuable 'as a health measure. 

A careful study is made of the physical, mental, moral and 
social make-up and the educational status of each individual as 
soon as possible after admission. Information regarding the 
woman's past environment and previous history, as well as her 
family history, is obtained from her county welfare superin- 
tendent. A complete physical examination is made on admis- 
sion, and at all times special emphasis is placed on health re- 
habilitation under the expert medical direction of Dr. Thomas 
Leslie Lee, F.A.G.S., the Colony medical director. 

Dr. Vance P. Peery of the Kinston Clinic has continued his 
valuable gratuitous service in neurological, eye, ear, nose and 
throat examinations of special cases. The Department of Psy- 
chology at the University of North Carolina, and the Caswell 
Training School, have both rendered important service through 
their psychological clinics, which made possible a detailed study 
of the mental ability and characteristics of every woman enter- 
ing the institution. 

In the past, no provision has been made in the Colony budget 
for instructional service. Therefore, we were very fortunate 
in being able to obtain for the past three years the special ser- 
vices of the same five Emergency Education teachers each year, 
paid entirely from Federal funds, first under the FERA and now 
under the WPA. To these five teachers we are indebted for a 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 7 

well-rounded program in Adult Education to supplement our 
own practical training of the women in the various work assign- 
ments of the Colony. Our Federal Emergency Education program 
consists of classes for mothers in child care and home manage- 
ment, reading and writing classes for illiterates (around fifteen 
per cent of all women committed to the Colony are illiterates or 
near-illiterates), classes in sewing, draft classes and music and 
recreational activities to encourage better use of leisure time. 
The value of these classes and the excellent service rendered by 
these teachers cannot be over-estimated. It is hoped that the 
incoming legislature will provide funds in order that this very 
important work may be carried on as an integral part of the 
Colony program. Each year it has been increasingly difficult 
to obtain this service from Federal funds in spite of the splendid 
cooperation of W.P.A. and E. E. Administrators and others, and 
we are most anxious that the minimum amount requested for 
instructional service be set up as requested in the budget esti- 
mates for the coming biennium. 

Some idea of the value of the Colony training and its prac- 
tical results in better community adjustment may be gained 
from the following excerpts from letters of parolees, and from 
statements by others concerning them. We do not wish to imply 
that one hundred per cent of our women succeed when placed 
on parole. The Colony has some failures, of course. Even these, 
however, improve vastly whilst with us and almost invariably 
do better for a time at least after leaving us, but should be under 
longer supervision than we are able to give them under our 
present set-up. According to our latest figures, between seventy- 
five and eighty per cent of Colony women make good in the com- 
munity after training here. The following examples are illustra- 
tive of the many who succeed, and are given in response to re- 
quests from many who are interested in the work of the Colony, 
and have asked that we present actual cases showing some of the 
good results of the Colony work. Care has been taken suffi- 
ciently to disguise cases to prevent identification, without dis- 
torting essential facts. This is, of course, the usual procedure 
in publishing case study material : 

A twenty-eight year-old woman who has been out on parole for over a 
year writes: "Am nursing and keeping house for Mrs. S. I go on duty 
at nine o'clock and quit at seven. They have five small children. I am so 
happy to think I'll get some Christmas money. Where there is a will, 
there is a way, if it is a good one. I am still going to night school and 



8 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

I enjoy it very much. I went to see my welfare officer, and showed her 
some of my typing, and we all laughed. I spelled type like this — tipe. 
Anyway, I am learning." 

Of another young woman in her early twenties, who is working in a 
home, her employer writes: "B. is getting along fine. She does her work 
well. She is very quiet and mannerly. The madam is well pleased with 
her." B. herself writes: "I surely am glad I learned to cook at the 
Colony. You should see my bread and pies, and I baked a big cake yester- 
day for Mrs. V.'s sister's birthday. I do appreciate all Miss G. taught me 
about cooking. Mr. and Mrs. V. (her employers) are so good. They 
seem just like a mother and dad. In my spare time, I am making pine 
needle baskets like Miss H. (Colony craft teacher under Federal funds) 
taught me, and I hope to sell some of them." 

E. M., aged twenty-three, writes: "I did all the canning for my mother 
this summer. I had never canned in my life before I came to the Colony. 
I sure am glad Miss G. taught me. I hope I can get a job in the canning 
factory here next year." 

0. S., aged twenty-five, writes : "Mrs. W. (her county welfare superin- 
tendent) got me a job in the sewing room. Please tell Mrs. R. (Colony 
sewing teacher under Federal funds) I surely appreciate her taking so 
much patience with me, teaching me to sew." (This woman had never 
handled a sewing machine before coming to the Colony. Her muscular 
coordination was poor, and her intelligence limited, and at first she kept 
treading the machine backwards and breaking the thread. However, she 
was very eager to learn,- especially as she is not very robust physically 
and needed to earn her own living. Under the patient guidance of her 
teacher she learned step by step first to sew simple seams, then to make 
various garments, until, after a period of several months' training, she 
became a fairly proficient seamstress. She also became an expert mender.) 

C. A., aged twenty-seven, who has a job as practical nurse in a city 
home, writes: "My work is very interesting. The instruction I got at the 
Colony, helping Miss J. (Colony registered nurse) was such good train- 
ing for me." 

M. L., aged twenty-four, writes: "My husband and I are getting along 
fine. He is working steady now. He says he is proud of my housekeeping. 
He used to stay away from home, and drink all the time (i.e. before M. L. 
came to the Colony) because I didn't know how to clean and cook. I used 
to think I never would learn how to housekeep to please 'Aunt D.' and 
'Mother G.' (housemothers at the Colony), they were so particular. But 
I'm glad I did, and I want you to tell all the girls just to put their mind on 
their work and try to remember what you told them, not to count the 
days but make the days count, and they will never regret it." 

E. F., aged twenty: "Mrs. N. (her employer) gave me an extra dollar 
last week, because I helped her a lot with the extra company she had. 
I have bought my little girl a dress and some shoes and sent them to her. 
I am saving my money to buy me a winter coat. I am very happy here, 
and I sure do like my job. I hope to save up and get some more school- 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 9 

ing some time. It does make one feel so good to be trusted. I think the 
most important thing in the world is to be trusted, and to prove one's 
self worthy of that trust." 

F. K. has been out in the community for three and a half years. Her 
first year out she worked on a job, earning $4.00 a week plus room and 
board, and saved over ninety dollars. She is now in her middle twenties 
and working her way through school, making in every way an excellent 
record. She writes: "I have earned more this last term than in any 
previous term, and I have kept up my school record, too." F. K. hopes to 
complete a two-year business course, and thereafter to get a position with 
some business firm. 

S. P., in her early thirties, has returned to her husband and child, and 
is also looking after her invalid sister: "They are all glad I have changed 
so much. Mother said I didn't even look like the same person, and I know 
I feel better. I help my little girl with her lessons at night and she said 
she was glad I had come home so I could help her and teach her the right 
way to live. Tell Mrs. S. (Colony literacy teacher under Federal funds), 
I sure do thank her for teaching me to read and write." S. P.'s husband 
writes: "I can never thank you enough for what you have done for my 
wife. She is really changed. We are very happy. Many thanks to you 
all." 

M. W., also a mother, in her thirties, writes: "Everybody at the church 
here has been awful good to me. I was afraid they would turn from me 
after the way I had done, but they didn't. It helps so much. They all say 
I have changed so they would hardly know me. I don't even feel like 
the same person. I sure am happy and getting along fine. My boys are 
doing lots better and the children are all going to school regular. I am 
working in the county sewing room. Tell Mrs. P. (Colony Adult Educa- 
tion teacher under Federal funds) I am trying to carry out what she told 
me about the care of my children, and it sure is a help to me." 

Mrs. M., a grandmother, writes: "You have no idea how happy I am. 
I wouldn't take anything for the Training I have received at the Colony. 
I'm sorry I did what I did to be sent there, but I sure wouldn't take 
anything for the training I got there. My children are doing so much 
better. H. (eldest son) has a regular job now. The baby (daughter's 
child) sure is sweet. Our home is happier now than it ever has been, and 
we are each of us doing our share to keep it so." 

G. D., in her early twenties, who has been home some time, and at first 
had a very hard time, but now has landed a job, and is very happy about 
it, has sent the women at the Colony a program for one of their Friday 
night meetings, and writes: "I hope that all of you enjoy this little pro- 
gram. I tried to find one a little more Christmas-like, but I couldn't. 
All the quarterlies have Christmas plays for Christmas week, and I guess 
that you all will have a play. • Would you like me to send you the words 
and music of a special Christmas song for Miss C. (Colony teacher of 
music and recreation under Federal funds), to teach you? I often think 
of you all and trust that you will receive the good that I did while there. 
I am sure that you will, if you only put your trust in Christ. If you want 



10 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

to be happy just become a Christian. At the close of your program, just stop 
and ask yourself these questions : Are we winning or losing in our fight 
of faith? Are we developing in usefulness? Are we enlarging our in- 
fluence? And the most important, if you are a Christian, are you winning 
others to Christ?" 

From the Police Matron who brought G. D. when she was committed 
to the Colony: "We think the change in G. is marvelous (i.e. since her 
return home from the Colony.) If the Colony had never done another 
thing, the work with G. alone would be worth while. She seems especially 
devoted to Miss M. (farm teacher of women at the Colony), who, she says, 
taught her really to like work and outdoor life. G. is such an active girl 
and needed healthy recreational activities outside of work hours. (The 
lack of them was probably one cause of her downfall). She is now at- 
tending the Y. W. one night a week. We wish the Colony had at least ten 
buildings instead of two. We could easily keep half a building filled our- 
selves, with cases from our city, if you would let us." 

The above excerpts are from but a few of the many letters 
and statements received from and about women that are no 
longer "forgotten women," but happily re-established in their 
own or other communities, proudly and thankfully bearing their 
small portion of the world's work-a-day load. Many of them are 
limited in intelligence, others have good average intelligence. 
All of them improve remarkably in general health, personal 
habits, outlook on life, personality traits, working skills and 
general behavior and efficiency, under the practical training and 
care given them at the Colony. A woman's ultimate success, 
however, depends also on the environment in which she is placed 
after leaving the Colony and the amount of sympathetic en- 
couragement she gets whilst endeavoring to hold her own in the 
community. Our parole placement is therefore of primary im- 
portance. Our thanks are due to the county and city welfare 
officials who cooperate with us regarding the placement and care 
of women on parole. We have, of course, as has already been 
intimated, our failures on parole as well as our successes, though 
the failures are comparatively few compared to the number of 
successes. Even the "failures" improve remarkably at the 
Colony, but they fail when placed on parole, mainly because 
their intelligence is too low to enable them to stand the strains 
and temptations of life without continuous supervision in a 
closely controlled environment, and in some cases because of 
special environmental and personality difficulties that prove too 
much for them and which are still beyond our ability to remove 
or control. 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 



11 



As the services rendered by the Colony in the rehabilitation 
of women misdemeanants have become better known, more 
women have been committed to the Colony than the present 
limited facilities are enabling us to care for, in spite of our 
relatively large turnover. On an average, two women enter 
and two leave the Colony every week. At the time of the writing 
of this report, the second week in November, 1936, the daily 
population for this month to date is an average of seventy-five 
women, or twenty-five per cent more than normal capacity. Dur- 
ing the last few months the situation has rapidly become acute, 
in fact, dangerous. All of the discipline rooms have had to be 
requisitioned as regular bedrooms, and the hospital clinic and 
hallways also have had to be used as dormitories for honor girls. 

The following table shows the rapid increase in population 
from April to October, inclusive: 

Highest No. 
of women 
Average daily No. resident resident on any 

resident at end of one day during 

population month month 

April 41 44 44 

May 51 54 55 

June 59 64 64 

July 61 62 62 

August - 65 63 67 

September 66 70 70 

October 72 77 78 

The outstanding need of the Colony at the present time, 
therefore, is more buildings, and the necessary increased facili- 
ties and maintenance appropriations to enable us to care for 
more women. The Colony is therefore asking for: 

1. Two new dormitories, to have a capacity of thirty 

inmates each, and to be of fire-proof construction 
throughout $91,000 

2. Industrial Building, to contain a central laundry, a 

canning plant, central food receiving and storage 
facilities, including cold storage room ; two class 
rooms, and a garage; building to be of fire-proof 

construction, about 24x 100 ft. overall $21,600 

At present the canning facilities are inadequate to 
care for canning sufficient produce to supply cur- 
rent use, and meat cannot be purchased in quantity 



12 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

because of lack of storage facilities. Bedrooms are 
used as class rooms, and the automobiles stand out 
in the weather in a three-sided shed. 

3. Central Heating Plant . $25,000 

Heating is now done by two separate boilers and 
two water jackets, which necessitates the use of 
higher grade coal, whereas a central plant will en- 
able the Colony to use a stoker and cheap grades 
of coal. At present the Colony has storage facili- 
ties for only ten to fifteen tons of coal. 

4. Furnishings: 

Laundry equipment in industrial building (only 
wash boards and flat irons now used; no drying 
facilities other than yard, for laundry for 75 

women, most of whom are diseased) $ 2,000 

Household, kitchen, dining rooms, etc., in two new 

buildings 6,000 

Industrial equipment — sewing machines, canning, 

etc., for industrial building 1,000 

Medical equipment for additional needs and small 
surgery, instruments, cabinets, chairs, beds, stands, 
and the like 1,000 

The medical work of the Colony has been seriously ham- 
pered through the lack of minimum hospital facilities for surgi- 
cal work, (see the report of the Medical Director) . At present, 
all our surgical work, including sterilizations, is done at the 
Memorial General Hospital in Kinston. Therefore, surgical care 
has been possible only for cases presenting acute conditions. 
For a nominal cost an upstairs sun porch (with a northern ex- 
posure) in our A Building could be suitably transformed into 
a small operating theatre, whilst two adjoining five-bed dormi- 
tories would serve as small hospital wards. The entire cost of 
the necessary alterations would not be more than around two 
to three hundred dollars. 

In addition to the above building program there is also an 
urgent need for a better understanding of the type of work 
done at the Colony so that the right women, and not the wrong 
ones, be sent here for training. When, as has been pointed out, 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 13 

not half of those who should be here can be accommodated 
/^L^ should there be sent here cases -for which the state makes insti- 
ll tutional provision elsewhere: The Colony makes no provision for 
women felons, insane or partially insane women, nor for the care 
of epileptics. It is concerned entirely with the care of women 
misdemeanants only, of a trainable type. The Colony stands 
for reform and re-education of women misdemeanants of all 
ages. This is certainly a feasible program, as has been shown 
above, and the re-education and rehabilitation of mothers and 
older women responsible for the care of families is surely an 
important contribution toward any community welfare program ; 
in fact, it is an essential corollary of our work with some of our 
younger women. How long, for example, can we expect some 
younger womin to make good on parole, when her mother or 
grandmother, or older sister or friend is still living a life of 
disrepute in the community? In regard to the older woman who 
is ignorant and friendless, she sometimes continues drinking 
and living immorally simply because she cannot, whilst in the 
community, break away from her old associates, but will do so 
if given a chance at the Colony. In cases where a young parolee 
does hold out, even when her older relatives are immoral, it is 
obvious that she is fighting against tremendous odds. We may 
place her in another community, but there remains the tempta- 
tion to go back sooner or later, if only on a visit, to the home com- 
munity, and if she is not yet sufficiently established, and the old 
temptations have not been removed, her downfall follows. In- 
stead, when a mother also is sent to the Colony it frequently 
happens that not only the mother and daughter, but oftimes an 
entire family group of six or eight persons becomes rehabili- 
tated, mainly through the example and leadership of the 
reformed mother herself. We have many such cases on record. 

To Dr. Harry W. Crane, Professor of Abnormal Psychology 
at the University of North Carolina and Director of the State 
Division of Mental Hygiene, we wish to express our thanks for 
consultation service, and for the clinical services of Miss Edith 
Wladkowski while assisting in his department. We are indebted 
also to Dr. F. M. Register, Superintendent of the Caswell Train- 
ing School, for the continued clinical service of Miss Wladkow- 
ski, as well as the clinical services of Miss Hazel Wertman, 
while psychologist at the Caswell Training School. As has 



14 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

been pointed out, the psychological service received both from 
Chapel Hill and Caswell has been of very great benefit to us. 
We are also indebted to Miss Dorothy Gray, the junior psychol- 
ogist at Caswell, for further work in psychometric testing. 

To all whose work and services are acknowledged in the fore- 
going report our grateful thanks are due, especially to the Board 
of Directors of the Colony for their continued aid and hearty 
support. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Elsa Ernst, Superintendent. 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 



15 



MEDICAL STATISTICS 
For the Two Years Ended June 30, 1935 and 1936 



Admissions per year 

Complete physical examinations 

Wassermann examinations of admissions 

Additional Wassermann examinations (rechecks) 

Total Wassermann examinations 

Positive syphilitic cases 

Syphilitic treatments: 

Intravenous 

Intramuscular 

Total number syphilitic treatments 

Number of Wassermanns positive on discharge (non-infectious) 

Number of Wassermanns negative on discharge 

Number of Wassermanns negative after treatment, to June 30, 1936 but still in 

institution 

Gonorrheal examinations of admissions: 

Vaginal smears , 

Urethral smears 

Additional gonorrheal examinations: 

Vaginal smears 

Urethral smears 

Total number of gonorrheal examinations 

Positive gonorrheal cases 

Vaginal douches for gonorrhea 

Gonorrheal vaccines .. 

Median number G. C. vaccines which resulted in negative G. C. smears 

Number of G. C. positive on discharge 

Number of G. C. negative on discharge 

Number of G. C. negative after treatment but still in institution 

Minor treatments 

Stool examinations 

Positive hookworm cases 

Hookworm treatments 

Other intestinal parasite treatment 

Metabolisms . 

Thyroid treatments 

Clinical patients 

Regular visits made by doctor 

Emergency calls by doctor 

Average number of patients each visit 

Major operations 

Minor operations 

Hospitalizations 

Average weight on admission 

Average weight on dismissal 

Average weight of hookworm patients on admission 

Average weight of hookworm patients on dismissal (after treatments) 

Typhoid vaccinations 

Small pox vaccinations 

Number of small pox takes 

Infectious diseases 



YEARS ENDED 



June 30, 1935 



71 
71 
71 
94 
165 
22 

215 
190 
405 



71 

71 

134 
134 

205 

30 

3,509 

60 



1,137 
54 

27 
27 



727 

50 

6 

15 

2 

4 

7 

120 

136 



200 
69 



June 30, 1936 



91 
89 
89 
109 
198 
26 

204 

164 

368 

2 

17 



89 

89 

153 

153 

242 

45 



300 



36 
5 
1,953 
73 
16 
16 



15 

2 

930 

50 
4 

19 



2 

6 

125 

148 

118 

132 

240 

75 

43 



16 Biennial Report for 1934-35—1935-36 

REPORT OF MEDICAL DIRECTOR 

A glance at the above statistical table reveals a very healthy 
biennium at the State Industrial Farm Colony for Women. Only 
with the closest cooperation of all departments are we able to 
publish such a report. To the entire personnel of the institution 
the Medical Director expresses his sincere appreciation. 

The buildings and grounds have at all times been found to 
be in excellent sanitary condition. The food has been handled 
in a sanitary way. The water supply is checked at monthly 
intervals. At one period during the biennium the water supply 
was found contaminated. This condition was promptly and 
effectively controlled. 

Several interesting facts present themselves in the above 
statistics : For the past two years thirty per cent of the institu- 
tional admissions were infected with syphilis. Of this number 
only two were discharged with positive Wassermanns, and they 
were to receive proper treatment at home. Forty-seven per cent 
of the admissions were infected with gonorrhea. All of this 
number were discharged with negative smears. Thirty -four per 
cent of the admissions were infected with hookworm. These 
cases were all treated with an average gain in weight of four- 
teen pounds after treatment. Another significant fact is the 
number of smallpox vaccine takes. All admissions are vac- 
cinated for smallpox and typhoid regardless of when they were 
last vaccinated. It will be noted that fifty-three per cent of the 
smallpox vaccines resulted in takes. The care given the women 
manifests itself in the fact that there was an average gain in 
weight of twenty-three pounds. 

During the physical examination of these women many ab- 
normal conditions are found which might be easily corrected. 
However, due to our limited space and limited finances many 
chronic surgical conditions have not been corrected. 

The above report is respectively submitted along with a 
request that hospital facilities on a small scale be provided at 
the State Industrial Farm Colony for Women. 

Thos. Leslie Lee, M.D., F.A.G.S., 

Medical Director. 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 



17 



DENTAL STATISTICS 
For the Two Years Ended June 30, 1935 and 1936 




Number of admissions for year 

Number of dental examinations of admissions 

Number showing positive Vincent's infection 

Number negative for Vincent's infection after treatment 

Number of Vincent's tests (rechecks) 

Total number of tests made for Vincent's infection 

Number of Vincent's treatments given 

Number positive, both syphilis and Vincent's angina 

Number of pyorrhea cases 

Number of cavities of decay 

Number of extractions. 

Number of patients showing no cavities 

Number of partially erupted third molars 

Number of dental plates made 

Total number of clinical patients 

Total number of visits by dentist 

Average number of patients seen each visit 



All newly admitted women are examined by the dentist within one 
week of admission. Out of one hundred and sixty new admissions during 
the past biennium, ninety-five (that is, fifty-nine per cent of all admissions) 
were found positive for Vincent's infection. All these cases became nega- 
tive under treatment. Strict sanitary measures are enforced to prevent 
re-infection while in the institution, as well as infection of those who- were 
negative on admission. Careful re-checks are made on all inmates every 
two months. 

Twenty-six per cent of cases positive for Vincent's infection on ad- 
mission were also positive for syphilis. These cases received syphilitic 
treatment under the Medical Director at the same time that they were 
receiving dental treatment for Vincent's infection. All these cases were 
negative for both Vincent's Angina and syphilis before being placed out 
on parole. 

Fifty-two cases or thirty-three per cent of new admissions were 
positive for pyorrhea. A total of seven hundred and sixteen cavities of 
decay were found in all cases examined during the biennium. A total of 
ninety-nine extractions were made. Only thirty-three cases out of a total 
of one hundred and sixty showed no cavities. Forty-six patients showed a 
condition of partially erupted third molars. Four dental plates were made, 
these being paid for by the patients themselves in three cases. At least 
one-third of the population is at all times in need of and receiving dental 
care. Careful individual instruction in the care of the teeth and continu- 
ous and thorough follow-up work in the establishment of correct health 
habits results in a marked improvement in the condition of the teeth of 
all women while in the institution; and a check-up on parole cases shows 
that in most cases these better habits of dental care are continued after 



18 



Biennial Report for 1934-35 — 1935-36 



the women leave here. It is very gratifying to find such close coopera- 
tion within the institution by all concerned with the daily supervision of 
the women and to know that there is such a distinct carry-over of health 
habits into community life. 

Geo. W. Price, D.D.S. 



TABLE NO. 1 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

June 30, 1936 



1. Date of opening April 3, 1929 

2. Plant: 

Land: 488 acres (80 acres under cultivation) $ 4,880.00 

Buildings 91,577.52 

Equipment 13,311.61 

Total value $ 109,769.13 





YEARS ENDED 




June 30, 1935 


June 30, 1936 


3 . Officers and employees in service at end of year: 

Superintendent _ _ - . - - - 


1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 


1 


Budget officer and deputy - 


1 


Dietitian. __ 


1 


Nurse - _ _ _ - - - . _ - . - 


1 


Housemothers __ - - - _ _ _ - 


2 


Farm teacher . - - -- 


1 


Farm director - -- 


1 


Farmhands . . - . - _ _ - 


2 






Total 


10 


10 







Industrial Farm Colony for Women 



19 



TABLE NO. 2 
MOVEMENT OF POPULATION 





YEARS ENDED 




June 30, 1935 


June 30, 1936 


Number on Books First of Year: 

In institution - 


42 
177 


34 


In custody outside institution _ _ _ ._ 


166 






Total number first of year - 


219 


200 






Admissions During Year: 

Received from courts.. - 


53 
10 
13 


70 


Paroled persons returned 


19 


Escaped persons returned -- - - - 


6 


Transferred from other institutions __ ._ 




Other admissions . __ - - - 


10 


5 






Total admissions - - 


86 


100 






Total number handled during year ... . . 


305 


300 






Separations During Year: 

Discharges -- .. 


11 

73 

2 

11 


43 


Paroles 


58 


Transferred to other institutions . 




Escapes . . - - - - 


7 


Deaths . . . . - - - - . . 




Other dispositions . . . . . . . . . 


8 


5 






Total separations 


105 


113 






Number on Books at End of Year: 

In institution ... __ 


34 
166 


64 


In custody outside institution ... 


123 






Total number end of year - . . _ 


200 


187 






Average daily resident population during year.. . _ 


31 

60 


36 


Normal capacity .. . _ . 


60 






Note: Average daily resident population for first quarter 1936-37 


f 


i4 


Present daily resident population — October 1936 


'2 







INDUSTRIAL FARM COLONY FOR WOMEN 

KlNSTON, N. C. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 



FOR THE TWO FISCAL YEARS ENDED 
JUNE 30, 1935, and JUNE 30, 1936. 



22 



Biennial Report for 1934-35 — 1935-36 



EXHIBIT "A" 

Revenues and Expenditures 

PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT FUND 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1935 



Fiscal Year 
1934-1935 



REVENUES 

Appropriation July 1, 1934 

EXPENDITURES 

Alterations 

Balance Appropriation June 30, 1935 



110.82 



110.82 



None 



EXHIBIT "B" 

Revenues and Expenditures 

MAINTENANCE FUND 

For the Two Years Ended June 30, 1935 and 1936 



Fiscal Year 
1934-1935 



Fiscal Year 
1935-1936 



REVENUES 

Appropriations: 

Chapter 282, P. L. 1933 

Contingency and emergency fund 

Chapter 306, P. L. 1935 

Institutional receipts: 

Sale of farm products 

Refunds — fire damage 

Other refunds of expense 



Total revenues . 



EXPENDITURES 

Administration 

Custodi alcare 

Operation and maintenance of plant 

Additions and betterments 

Permanent improvement, fire damage repair (refunded) . 



Refunds 

Excess disbursements over receipts (received in previous years) . 



Total expenditures 

Balance reverted to General Fund. 



$ 13,210.00 
1,251.00 



171.99 
614.63 



$ 15,247.62 



$ 2,505.08 
8,980.21 
3,139.47 



$ 14,624.76 
614.63 



$ 15,239.39 



8.23 



23,150.00 

39.56 
100.10 
125.94 



$ 23,415.60 



$ 3,518.81 

12,490.75 

3,369.34 

1,361.27 

100.10 



$ 20,840.27 
.90 



20,839.37 



2,576.23 



Industrial Farm Colony for Women 



23 



EXHIBIT "C" 

AVERAGE POPULATION AND MAINTENANCE PER CAPITA COST 

For the Two Years Ended June 30, 1935 and 1936 



Function 


Fiscal Year 
1934-1935 


Fiscal Year 
1935-1936 


Administration . . ._ 


1 


81.62 
292.61 
102.30 


1 


97.54 




346.29 


Operation and maintenance of plant 


93.41 




37.74 










$ 


476.53 


S 


574.98 


Average number of inmates 


31 




36 







FARM PRODUCTS USED BY KITCHENS 





June 30, 1935 


June 30, 1936 


Fruits: 

Grapes - _ 


2 bushels 
90 gallons 

6 gallons 
207 gallons 

44 bushels 

7 bushels 
31 bushels 

3 bushels 
2,383 pounds 

7 bushels 

112 dozen 

67 bushels 

50 bushels 

5 bushels 

5 bushels 

12 heads 

2 bushels 

1 bushel 
7 bushels 

3 bushels 
501 bushels 
125 bushek 

2 bushels 
64 bushels 
31 bushels 
20 bushels 




Strawberries _ 


105 gallons 


Cantaloupes _ _ 


307 gallons 


Watermelons , 


411 gallons 


Vegetables: 

Beans — snap * _ _ . 


6 bushels 


Beans — lima . 


28 bushels 


Beets . _ . 


2 bushels 






Cabbage .... 


1 , 597 pounds 


Carrots . 


1 bushel 


Corn .... 


145 dozen 


Collards . . 


9 bushels 


Cucumbers 


45 bushels 






Greens . 


46 bushels 


Lettuce . . 


15 heads 


Okra 


2 bushels 


Onions . - - . . 


22 bushels 


Peas -. 


5 bushels 


Peppers .. 


14 bushels 


Potatoes — irish . 


236 bushels 


Potatoes — sweet 


9 bushels 


Spinach . .. . 




Squash - . . . . . 


23 bushels 


Tomatoes . 




Turnips -. 




Radishes 


3 bushels 


Eggs and Milk: 

Eggs - 


2,600 dozen 
1,458 gallons 

550 pounds 

3,340 pounds 

312 pounds 


1 , 240 dozen 


Milk 


989 gallons 


Meat: 

Pork — fresh 


210 pounds 


Pork — smoked 


375 pounds 


Chicken 


335 pounds 







24 



Biennial Report for 1934-35 — 1935-36 



FARM PRODUCTS CANNED BY THE INSTITUTION 



June 30, 1935 



June 30, 1936 



Farm Products Canned by the Institution: 
Fruits: 

Strawberries . . 

Watermelon pickle 



Vegetables: 

Beans — snap . . 

Beans — lima 

Beans — dried, shelled. 

Beets 

Carrots ... 

Corn _ 

Okra ... 

Okra — tomato mixture for soup. 

Peas 

Squash 

Tomatoes 

Cucumbers 

Kraut 

Kraut juice 

Pepper relish. 

Chili-sauce.. 



Total. 



24 gallons 
10 gallons 



68 gallons 

17 gallons 

18 gallons 
40 gallons 



15 gallons 
3 gallons 
6 gallons 

28 gallons 

96 gallons 
40 gallons 

100 gallons 

97 gallons 
90 gallons 



652 gallons 



44 gallons 



171 gallons 
24 gallons 

32 gallons 
7 gallons 



74 gallons 
45 gallons 

20 gallons 

11 gallons 
5 gallons 



433 gallons' 



Farm Products Used on the Farm: 

Corn 

Green feed 

Hay 



1,400 bushels 



300 bushels 
1 , 480 pounds 



15 tons 



Date Due 


MOV S 


\m 






























































































































BRODART, INC. Cat No 23 233 Printed in U S A